Codification:000
Climate Resilient Neighborhood
Continent:EuropeCountry:DenmarkCity:CopenhagenYear Submitted:2016
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目录

Abstract

Copenhagen Climate-Resilient Neighbourhood is an initative which presents an innovative model for climate adaptation that can inspire cities worldwide. Here the City of Copenhagen is working together with residents of the neighborhood to create cloudburst solutions, which also contributes to urban quality of everyday life . The initative aim to rethink and optimize urban space, so it is possible to manage the rainwater in green solutions on the surface. The vision for the Climate-Resilient Neighborhood is followed by an effort targeted to engage residents of the neighborhood to take action on their own. Among private residents’ initatives are green roofs , rain gardens and street trees. All these small projects including the large municipal climate adaptation projects, form the Climate Resilient Neighbourhood.
The project is a cooperative venture between the central City Planning Office, the Integrated Urban Renewal office in the Climate Resilient Neighbourhood. and HOFOR (Copenhagen’s utility service)
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Background Information

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Background and policy framework:
·COPENHAGEN CLIMATE ADAPTATION PLAN, 2011
The plan sets the framework for the strategies that the city can choose to protect itself against climate change. Adopted by the Municipal Council on 25 August 2011
http://international.kk.dk/sites/international.kk.dk/files/uploaded-files/Copenhagen%20Climate%20Adaptation%20Plan%20-%202011.pdf
·CLOUDBURST MANAGEMENT PLAN, 2012
Strategy for managing cloudbursts in Copenhagen. The plan establishes the level the city is to protect itself against and presents the first financial estimates of expenditure. Adopted by the Municipal Council on 13 December 2012
http://international.kk.dk/sites/international.kk.dk/files/uploaded-files/Cloudburst%20Management%20plan%202010.pdf
Additional frameworks:
·CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION AND INVESTMENT STATEMENT part 1, 2015
http://kk.sites.itera.dk/apps/kk_pub2/pdf/1499_bUxCjgovgE.pdf
Reason for undertaking the initiative:
The project is part of the City of Copenhagen's strategy for district and urban renewal. In 2010 the neighbourhood of St. Kjelds in Copenhagen Østerbro was chosen as a district suitable for urban upgrade through the City of Copenhagen’s district and urban renewal project.
The neighbourhood was worn and needed physical, social and cultural upgrading
The integrated urban renewal project in St. Kjelds was given a total budget of 60 million dkr. (funded by the former Ministry of Housing and the City of Copenhagen.
In 2010 the Copenhagen City Council chose to do an integrated urban renewal project in the district of St. Kjelds as many streets, squares and green areas were used and worn out. Moreover the aim was also to counter some of the social challenges, which were already to be found in the area, including social housing problems, unemployment and low living standards.
The neighborhood of St. Kjelds (now Copenhagen’s Climate-Resilient Neighbourhood) is a diverse and densely populated neighborhood - there are 24.000 residents and more than 10,000 jobs in just one square kilometer and the area is in lack of green spaces.
The cloudburst in 2011 made it clear to politicians, professionals and citizens of the city that the climate challenge in Copenhagen needed to be addressed. This work was initiated through the Copenhagen Climate Adaptation Plan and the neighbourhood of St. Kjelds was selected as a special target of developing methods and
technologies in order to adapt the city to climate change.The initiative will have a positive impact on urban life for 24.000 residents.
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Goals of the Initiative

Outcome/goals:
The goals of the initiative is to future-proof the city of Copenhagen with green climate change adaptation solutions at street level, so stormwater is managed efficiently without creating damage to the city. The solutions should be tangible and useful for the citizens.
Furthermore the goals are to present a scalable climate change strategy which can inspire other cities to do the same.
Specific goals in the neighbourhood:
-To prevent flooding in the neighbourhood by managing the stormwater/rainwater in a sustainable matter, through green solutions on the surface.
-To create better and greener urban spaces so urban life is improved.To enhance biodiversity. In this way we create better living conditions for the citizens.
-To create an identity for the neighbourhood.
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Parties and Partners to the Initiative and Resources Used for Implementation

The project involves different partnerships both local and external.
A local partnership has been created, consisting of citizens living in the neighbourhood. For example a board of the square at Tåsinge Plads has been established (the first climate adapted square in the neighbourhood). The board members are residents living around the square. We have also established different partnerships (public-private) with local environmental/green NGO’s (e.g. Miljøpunkt Østerbro) and local political secretaries (Lokaludvalg) and local entrepreneurs as Østergro Rooftop farm etc.
The City of Copenhagen also have a partnership with Copenhagen’s Utility service HOFOR, who also finance parts of the climate adaptation projects.
The initiative is a part of the integrated urban renewal project in the neighbourhood of St. Kjeld’s.
Financing:
·The former Ministry of City, Housing and Rural Areas (now the Ministry of Immigration, Integration and Housing Affairs
·City of Copenhagen
In total 60 mio. dkr. was given to the project.
The project has been given additional funding through different partnerships.
Other resources:
-The local secretariat consisting of 5-6 people (planners, architects, communication, political scientists etc.)
-HOFOR (Copenhagen’s utility service)
-The Climate Department (City of Copenhagen)
-Different local organizations and NGO’s, boards etc.
The local steering committee, consisting of residents and representatives from the 7 different city administrations.

Innovation for the Initiative

The initiative/project is revolutionary.
It is the first time, for the City of Copenhagen, to adapt a whole district/neighbourhood to climate change. The initiative/project presents a new way to develop climate adaptation solutions in a dense city, together with the residents.
We plan and develop solutions together with the citizens. In the Climate Resilient Neighbourhood we have worked closely together with local citizens. Citizens have contributed with local knowledge, ideas and resources in the different projects. For example on Tåsinge Plads, Bryggervangen and Skt. Kjelds Plads. The ideas have later been incorporated in the final plans developed by the extern consultants (architects).
The innovation is being applied in the City of Copenhagens’ strategy for climate adaptation within the Technical and Environmental Administration.
-The Climate Adaptation Plan 2011
http://international.kk.dk/sites/international.kk.dk/files/uploaded-files/Copenhagen%20Climate%20Adaptation%20Plan%20-%202011.pdf
In 2015 City of Copenhagen launched a strategy of co-creation
-Co-Create Copenhagen
http://kk.sites.itera.dk/apps/kk_pub2/pdf/1534_0TdC5G2XZr.pdf

Obstacles and Solutions to the Innovation

New and combined solutions (climate adaptation) challenge the legal system, organizational structures, physical structures, mental structures, and economic structures in many levels and areas. By communication and by working interdisciplinary the challenges can be overcome.

Outcomes and Assessments

The Copenhagen Climate Resilient Neighbourhood is one of the first bigger climate adaptation projects covering a whole district in the city. The aim is to improve the quality of urban life in the city/neighborhood, by creating solutions which adapt to climate change, creates better green spaces and are environmental sustainable.
The initiative/project has a great impact on both local, regional, national and global scale.
In Copenhagen’s Climate Resilient Neighborhood, we will establish “green”(use of vegetation) and “blue” solutions both in private courtyards, on streets areas and urban spaces. The aim is to disconnect 30% of rainwater from the sewer, by using techniques where different solutions are linked to together.
The concept is to establish green cloudburst solutions (solutions on the surface) in the upper and middle part of the catchment area. The rainwater will be channelized into a cloudburst sewer in the lower part of the catchment area which will lead rainwater into the harbour. We establish greener courtyards and manage local surface water run-off in the courtyards. This is managed either by establishing green roofs on e.g. smaller backyard buildings and by implementing water tanks,. rain gardens etc. . In terms of heavy rains we secure cellars by establing raised stairways so excess water will run from the courtyard and into the road.
The different “green” surface solutions (sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS) ) will provide a recreational value for the city and its residents and it will increase the quality of life in everyday life.
Each year a study on city life is conducted in the neighbourhood. The analysis gives a picture of the city life and counts how much activity there is in e.g. a square, park or a street.
In the neighbourhood 4 city life studies have been conducted in 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015
The results of the city life studies can be found in the reports from each year, the reports contain a more detailed review of the method.
The purpose of the city life studies is to assess and evaluate how the residents use the neighbourhood. Where and how do people use the neighbourhood and how do they move around? We can thereby compare the different studies and assess the results before and after a physical interventions/urban renewal.
We use the studies to get an indication of which urban areas are functional and which are dysfunctional and thereby we can find out if we have improved the physical spaces.
·The citizens in Copenhagen become more aware of climate change and the needs to adapt the city to heavy rain and cloudbursts.
·The citizens get inspired by the different initiatives developed by the integrated urban renewal project and other citizens. They get motivated for creating their own projects. The citizens become more conscious of their ability to contribute to their local community and the city.
·The neighbourhood has developed a good reputation and identity as Copenhagen Climate Resilient Neighbourhood.

Methods Applied

New planning and working methods:
We plan and develop together with the citizens. In the Climate-Resilient Neighbourhood we have worked together with the local citizens. Citizens have contributed with local knowledge and ideas in the different projects. Eg.on Tåsinge Plads, Bryggervangen and Skt. Kjeld Plads. The ideas have later been incorporated in the final plans and solutions done by the architects (consultants).

Benefit to Other Cities

New planning and working methods:
We plan together with the citizens. In the Climate-Resilient Neighbourhood we have worked together with the local citizens. Citizens have contributed with local knowledge and ideas in the different projects. Eg.on Tåsinge Plads, Bryggervangen and Skt. Kjeld Plads. The ideas have later been incorporated in the final plans and solutions done by the architects (consultants).
A strong neighbourhood is a neighbourhood that has a "voice" - that can articulate their wishes to the people in charge of the neighborhood development and realization of this. The neighborhood's "voice" is a network of institutions, political organizations, associations and individuals, sometimes formally organized, other times informally.
An urban renewal program like in the Climate Resilient Neighbourhood, can help to strengthen this "voice" because it can set a common agenda through the district plan for the development of the neighbourhood, And it has the power to deliberate involve the neighbourhood's citizens in the process.
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